Calculating GHG emissions from energy use

Emissions from energy are generated from electricity used in heating, transport, refinement, storage facilities and other processes. Energy makes up 73% of global emissions and 1% of global emissions come from food processing. Most, if not all stages past the farm gate require energy to produce the finished products: Drying, storing, refrigerating, heating, and other types of processing. In CarbonCloud, energy is a node that is added to the relevant processes above to account for emissions from electricity and fuels.

In the food industry, fuels are primarily used for food processing and transport. CarbonCloud accounts for, not only the emissions from the combustion of the fuel but also the emissions from the production and transport of the fuel, otherwise known as the Fuel- and Energy-related activities category in Scope 3.

Emma Jonson
Scientist, CarbonCloud

Electricity use


There are two main ways of accounting for emissions from electricity: The market-based method and the location-based method.

Market-based method

The market-based method reflects the emissions associated with a specific electricity supplier, and the electricity contract it offers. This could be “green” electricity, but also non-renewable energy that a specific supplier offers. Consumers who do not make specific purchases or who do not have access to supplier data use the residual mix emission factor to calculate their market-based emissions. Simply put, the residual mix is what is left on the market when renewable electricity, or other tracked supplier-specific electricity, is deducted.

Location-based method

The location-based method is based on the average mix of electricity in a specific geographic region, during a defined time period.

CarbonCloud uses the following emission factors in hierarchical order:

  1. Emission factors that represent specific electricity suppliers if there is a direct link to the supplier, for instance through a contract or agreement, and if there is supplier specific data available.
  2. Emission factors that represent the residual mix of the country in question when there is no direct link to a specific supplier, and when there is data on the residual mix available.
  3. Emission factors representing the average mix of the country (consumption based if possible, i.e., taking imports and exports into account) if none of the above applies. (Location-based method.)

CarbonCloud’s energy model

In summary, CarbonCloud uses the market-based method whenever it is applicable or the location-based method otherwise. Emission factors for residual mixes in Europe are taken from the Association of Issuing Bodies. Location-based emission factors for other countries around the world are taken from Climate transparency.

Renewable electricity used in a customer canvas is reviewed and approved only with the display of relevant up-to-date certificates.

Gaseous fuels

Gaseous fuels

Gaseous fuels or fuel gas is any type of fuel in a gas form, e.g. natural gas. , and synthesizing national or regional data from well to tank, the emissions from the provision of the fuel, and universal data from tank to wheel, the emissions from the combustion of the fuel.


Input data source: IPCC

Biogas is a by-product of organic waste used mostly for heating. Biogas is generated during anaerobic digestion and is a mix of methane and carbon dioxide. Combustion of biogas turns methane into carbon dioxide. Since it’s part of the natural carbon cycle, the carbon dioxide does not contribute to the climate footprint of the biogas. However, there is typically some leakage of methane, and that does affect the climate impact. Emissions from biogas leakage are measured according to the IPCC National greenhouse gas inventories, with the IPCC-suggested 5% leakage.


Input data source: Swedish Energy Agency

CarbonCloud uses conservative values from the Swedish Energy Agency for both well-to-tank and tank-to-wheel emissions.

Heavy fuel oil

Input data source: Swedish Energy Agency, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

Heavy fuel oil is primarily used for shipping. CarbonCloud uses conservative values from the Swedish Energy Agency for the well-to-tank part of the life cycle and the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency is the source of the emissions from combustion (tank-to-wheel).

Jet fuel (kerosene)

Input data source: Swedish Energy Agency, Swedish Environmental Protection Agency

Kerosene is used in aviation transport. CarbonCloud uses conservative values from the Swedish Energy Agency for well-to-tank and values from the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for tank-to-wheel.

District heating

Input data source: Swedenergy, CarbonCloud

District heating is a method of heating available in countries with the appropriate infrastructure. CarbonCloud uses data from Swedenergy, and its own calculations.

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